Some explorations on the most effective prevention

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In recent years, with the rapid development of urban and rural economy, the construction of a new socialist countryside has sprung up like mushrooms, and the living standards of farmers have been greatly improved. At the same time, the use of fire, oil, electricity and gas has also increased significantly, resulting in the severe situation of rural fires. Rural fire protection work is not optimistic. The occurrence of some rural fires has caused shocking economic losses and casualties. Rural fire protection work is an important part of social fire protection work, which is directly related to the stability of social security and the healthy development of economic construction in rural areas. Therefore, it is urgent to do a good job in rural fire protection, which has practical and long-term positive significance. This article only talks about some superficial opinions on the causes of rural fires, the characteristics of rural fires and the countermeasures to prevent rural fires

I. causes of rural fires

at present, the occurrence of rural fires is caused by many factors, and it is also the inevitable product of the long-term backward development of rural economy and the slow improvement of people's living standards. Many hidden dangers of fires directly threaten people's life and property safety, and also bring many problems to the development of rural fire protection work, which is not only a fire problem, but also a heavy rural social problem, It is worth pondering and discussing

(I) lack of implementation of fire safety. At this stage, some township party committees and governments have not included the fire protection work into the important agenda, have not paid enough attention to the fire protection work, are indifferent to the many potential fire hazards within their jurisdiction, the grass-roots fire protection organizations and various safety rules and regulations, responsibilities have not been established, clear, and the deployment has not been implemented in place. At the same time, due to various reasons, the rural fire protection work has been stagnant. Due to the limitations of economic and cultural level, some village cadres have a weak awareness of fire safety and lack of safety investigation system, resulting in the rural fire prevention work basically unattended, relying on the villagers' self-awareness for protection, and the safety work is in vain. Especially in some remote mountainous rural areas, the fire protection work is almost forgotten, and in some places, the implementation of the rural fire safety work system and the fire safety management mechanism are blank

(II) farmers lack awareness of fire safety. Although in recent years, governments at all levels and relevant departments have strengthened the fire protection publicity work, and the people's awareness of fire protection has been enhanced to a certain extent, due to the remoteness of the vast rural areas, the scattered residence, the low level of education of the people, plus the lagging grass-roots fire management, the publicity work unattended, unattended and other reasons, it is difficult to implement the fire protection publicity activities. In some remote mountainous rural areas, Fire protection publicity and education work often become a forgotten corner, lack of common sense of safe use of fire and electricity, conservative customs, firewood piled up disorderly, and many fire inducing factors. First, farmers use electricity in violation of regulations. Some rural household electric wires are pulled and connected in disorder, aging and damaged, and household appliances are powered on for a long time, which leads to house fires. Second, farmers use oil illegally. Now some wealthy farmers have bought tractors, motorcycles, etc. due to various factors such as the inconvenience of rural transportation, some farmers will buy gasoline, diesel 2.3 interface and program turn over and kerosene for daily use, and store them at home for daily use, which is also very easy to cause fire disasters. Third, farmers use gas in violation of regulations. Some farmers' families use liquefied petroleum gas stoves for cooking, but because they do not operate according to the normal safety procedures, they are often prone to explosion and combustion in case of open fire due to forgetting to close the valve and gas leakage. Fourth, farmers use fire in violation of regulations. Farmers' lives often cause fires due to careless fire management, such as children playing with fire, setting off firecrackers, setting fires, littering cigarette butts and other reasons

(III) there is a serious lack of fire protection planning in villages and towns. In recent years, with the rapid development of economy, the zeroing methods and precautions of hydraulic universal testing machine for rural fire protection infrastructure. 2. Precautions for zeroing of hydraulic universal testing machine. When the zero point is too large, the construction still lags behind the pace of economic and social development. The reconstruction work of rural market towns is still slow, and the implementation of fire protection planning in most towns is not in place. Houses are mainly wooden houses and earth houses, which are connected in front and behind, adjacent to each other, in the fire spacing Fire truck access, fire-fighting facilities, electrical circuit laying and other aspects do not meet the fire safety requirements, so it is very easy to spread and expand in case of fire, which is easy to cause a lot of houses to be destroyed

(IV) there is a serious lack of fire control organizations in rural areas. Some villages and towns in mountainous areas have weak economic conditions, and farmers go out to work more, and there is no fire-fighting organization in any form. At the same time, with a large number of restructuring and transition of rural enterprises, the vast majority of enterprises have changed to private nature, resulting in the cancellation of fire management organizations in many enterprises, and even the firefighters retained by a few units are basically part-time staff. Some places have not even established any form of fire protection organization

(V) lack of fire control supervision in rural areas. The rural fire protection work is extensive, the villages are relatively scattered, the number of households is large, the jurisdiction area is insufficient, the police force of the police station is insufficient, and various public security management and prevention tasks are heavy, and the police force is seriously insufficient. In the daily supervision and management, there is no time to take into account each village and family, and it is difficult to find and eliminate all fire hazards in time only by relying on the existing police force

II. Characteristics of rural fires

with the rapid development of rural economy, the living standards of farmers have been significantly improved, the industrial structure of villages and towns has shown a diversified development trend, and the form and scale of rural buildings have undergone great changes. Looking at the casualties and property losses caused by rural fires across the country, especially the occasional major fire accidents, it is terrible

(I) the fire resistance rating of the building is low, which is easy to cause the fire to spread quickly. In some rural areas, especially in the economically underdeveloped areas, due to the limitations of natural conditions, geographical environment and economic conditions, there is no overall planning for housing construction, no fire protection design, large randomness of housing construction, less residential brick and tile structures, and most housing buildings have low fire resistance rating, mostly civil, brick and wood, stone and wood structures, doors and windows are mostly made of wood materials, and most roofs are made of wood, veneer It is made of combustible materials such as linoleum. Paper is often used to plaster the ceiling inside the house, and firewood is mostly piled in front of and behind the house, resulting in the connection of indoor and outdoor combustibles. The distance between buildings is small, and some are connected together. Once a fire occurs, it is easy to spread and expand, and the fire collapses as soon as it burns by taking advantage of the wind, which is easy to cause the situation of continuous fire

(II) the main body of the building is destroyed quickly, which is easy to cause many fire hazards. Due to the small building spacing between rural residential houses, after a fire, the fire is easy to spread to other houses, forming a situation of burning camp after camp. Once the building burns for a long time, the main structure of the house is easy to be damaged, prone to collapse and roof falling hazards, and there are many risks for people to enter the fire site to rescue property and extinguish the fire

(III) villagers have poor alarm awareness, which is easy to cause large fire losses. Because the communication conditions in the suburbs are relatively poor and few, most of the people at home are old people, who find the fire relatively late. When some villagers encounter a fire, they don't call the police in time, put out the fire by themselves first, and wait until the fire can't be controlled before thinking of calling the police. However, it is gratifying that the mood is too tense when calling the police. Due to dialect and other reasons, the situation is unclear about the location of the fire, the nature of the fire, and the route of the fire truck, which delays the dispatch time of the fire brigade, The fire could not be controlled at the moment, resulting in large fire losses

(IV) there are few fire-fighting organizations in rural areas, which is easy to cause weak fire-fighting power. Some villages have no obligation to organize fire-fighting organizations, and most young people go out to work, leaving only the elderly and children at home. Although some people are unable to put out the initial fire in time. It usually takes about an hour for the fire brigade to arrive, and the best time to put out the fire has been missed. Most of them are on the scene to clean up the residual fire

(V) villagers have little fire fighting knowledge, which is easy to cause slow fire extinguishing speed. After a fire, local residents generally lack fire-fighting knowledge, have no fire-fighting experience, and are in a hurry. They do not know how to deal with the initial fire. They use different methods to extinguish the fire, and often cannot extinguish the fire in the initial stage. After the fire truck arrives, because the residents do not know the relevant knowledge of fire fighting and want to cooperate with the fire brigade to carry out the fire fighting work as soon as possible, water hoses and water guns will occur, causing the fire fighting work to be carried out slowly

(VI) there are few fire water sources in rural areas, which is easy to cause difficulties in water supply at the fire site. With the development of economy and the improvement of people's living conditions, farmers generally use tap water. Due to the disrepair of pools, ponds and ditches, the water storage capacity is decreasing day by day, and some of them are simply filled into farmland. Although some villages and towns have considered the problem of fire control when installing tap water and installed fire hydrants, there is little water available for fire fighting, which is often a drop in the bucket, which is useless and can only sigh at the fire

(VII) rural roads are in poor condition, which is easy to cause late fire fighting and rescue. At present, the roads leading to villages and towns are basically cement roads. Most of the rural fire sites are far away, narrow roads, and there are many potential dangers. Once there is a fire in civilian houses, the fire fighting forces cannot rush to the site in a short time and at a short distance to fight the fire. They miss the best opportunity to fight the initial fire. When they arrive at the fire site, the fire has often spread or developed to the stage of fierce combustion or extinction. Even in some villages, there is no road at all, and fire engines can't get in, so firefighters can't smoothly reach the fire site to put out the fire

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